These are some mathematics investigations I have pursued over the years. They may be of some interest to teachers, students, or hobbyists. I try to convey a conceptual understanding, usually without rigorous proof. Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

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Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

In my pursuit of a teaching career, I was told to justify the study of each concept by establishing its relevance to the students’ lives. Sorry, but I still have trouble buying into that one. Fortunately, poetry and music are rarely put to that same test. As I glance at the list below, I must concede that it would be difficult to convert any of the lessons into food, shelter, or money. These are things that interested me, and now I understand them better. If there is a reward, it is the fact that every time I do this I get better at figuring things out.

I occasionally get email from people seeking permission to use my work. Feel free to cite, quote, edit, reproduce, or distribute anything on this site. Do not worry about putting my name on it, but please do not put your own name on it.

Many of these presentations use the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but only one of them actually requires it. If you do not have the software, let me suggest that you follow this link to Key Curriculum Press and look into it.

Paul Kunkel

March 16, 2016

Updated the animations on Hanging With Galileo.

October 23, 2015

Updated the animations on Reuleaux Triangle.

October 9, 2015

Updated the animations on the Vernier Scale page of the Geometry of Surveying.

October 8, 2015

Zapatillas/ NIKE Women blanco s Revolution 3 para correr Gris correr oscuro/ blanco/ negro 023f680Updated the animations on Linkages.

October 4, 2015

Updated the animations on On the Square.

September 25, 2015

Updated the animations on Tangent Circles.

September 23, 2015

Updated the lead page of Conic Sections and Construction.

The page it replaced had java animations that were not being treated well by modern browsers. New images were generated with the developmental Web Sketchpad, which is producing very satisfying results. This appears to be the future, so expect more of my pages to be similarly updated soon.

February 26, 2015

Added Book VII to the Conics of Apollonius.

This is the final surviving book of the treatise.

October 22, 2014

Added Book VI to the Conics of Apollonius.

June 10, 2014

Added Book V to the Conics of Apollonius.

Includes GSP-3 files

Includes GSP-4 files

Includes GSP-5 files
Contents:

We are given two fixed points in a vertical plane. A particle starts from rest at one of the points and travels to the other under its own weight. Find the path that the particle must follow in order to reach its destination in the briefest time.

This is a famous problem in the calculus of variations. Nothing new is presented here, but the explanation is more thorough than most.

Buffon’s Needle

An old probability exercise is aided by an interactive Sketchpad file. By manipulating the sketch, an intuitive understanding may be gained, even if the student has had no introduction to calculus.

Zapatillas/ NIKE Women blanco s Revolution 3 para correr Gris correr oscuro/ blanco/ negro 023f680

Chinese Handcuffs This has no lesson, only questions. It is just an interesting animated file, which invites student investigation. It has applications for geometry,

Brooks Womens PureFlow 7 Gris / negro / verde , Zapatillas de trail running Olympus 3 para mujer Altra AFW1859F Gris / verde azulado , Zapatillas de entrenamiento NIKE Train Ultrafast Flyknit para hombre Pure Platinum / Volt-Ghost Green-Volt Tint Kangoo Jumps XR3 Edición especial Negro y rosa Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Seasonal Color Hola Espacio Cyan Zapatillas de deporte Vans reflexivas ISO 1.5 para hombre Puerto Zapatillas de deporte Onitsuka Tiger Mexico 66 Abedul / Verde 1 Under Armour Women s RailFit 1 Gris Nublado (105) / Aluminio , Sandalia deportiva NIKE Kids Kawa Slide (GS / PS) Blanco negro , Zapatillas deportivas 574S Sport New Balance para hombre Azul marino Zapatillas de deporte con adidas Pw Tennis Hu de adidas para hombre Azul / rosa-gris claro Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Seasonal Color Hola Cielo azul , NIKE Men s Roshe Run rojo Zapatilla de deporte con cremallera de alta gama de Loeffler Randall para mujer Negro Negro , Zapatos Go Walk Go Step Original de Skechers para mujer Negro Negro Zapatillas deportivas 574S Sport New Balance para hombre Azul negro Adidas Adizero Tempo 9 W femenino Blanco / Aero Blue / Core Black , NIKE Classic Cortez Gamuza para mujer , Under Armour Women s HOVR Phantom NC Negro (002) / Marea Tropical adidas MUJERES ORIGINALES CLIMACOOL 02/17 ZAPATOS # BY9289 Gris / gris , Adidas Adizero Shotput Running Shoe Núcleo Negro, Ftwr Blanco, Naranja Zapatillas Nike Women s Flex Trainer 5 Cool Grey / Black / Sunset Glow , Zapato de running ASICS GEL-Venture 5 para mujer Indigo Blue / Pink Glow / Living Coral , Zapatillas deportivas 574S Sport New Balance para hombre Varsity naranja / blanco Zapatillas NIKE Femenil Flex 2016 Rn Running Azul Brillo / Blanco / Azul Racer / Azul marino medianoche , Under Armour Women s Micro G Limitless 2 Negro , Zapatillas Drew Shoe para mujer Paige Ternero negro Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Seasonal Color Hola Blanco óptico , Zapatillas de running NIKE Juvenate para mujer Azul profundo / blanco / esmeralda ,

trigonometry, and probability. Fair warning: The discussion revolves about
a figure that appears only when the sketch is animated. Without Geometer’s
Sketchpad, this one will make little sense at all.
Conic Sections and Construction

My emphasis is on geometric properties of the conic sections, particulary understanding that has been handed down to us in ancient texts. There also are some challenging constructions.

The Geometry of Surveying

This used to be my job, and I enjoyed studying all of the geometrical concepts that were part of the science of land surveying. In this article I discuss the instruments of the profession, their operating principles, their error, and their calibration.

Hanging with Galileo

An investigation into the catenary, the curve formed by a chain suspended at both ends. It also extends into the curve of the main cables on a suspension bridge, which, interestingly, is not a catenary.

Inversion Geometry Nike Hombres Air Zoom Pegasus 33 Pure Platinum / Negro-blanco , Zapatillas de running adidas Adistar Boost ESM para mujer gris Zapatillas de running NIKE para mujer Air Huarache Run Ultra Elemental Rose / Wolf Gray / White , Zapatillas deportivas 574S Sport New Balance para hombre Varsity naranja / blanco , Brooks Women s Adrenaline GTS 17 Plata / púrpura Cactus flor / Bluebird Zapatillas de running Nike Women s FS Lite Run 4 Negro / Hot Punch / Dark Grey / White Merrell Siren Edge Hiker para mujer Vapor , Ros Hommerson Chelsea Mary Jane Slip On Shoes para mujer Estaño , Zapatillas de running NIKE Air Max Jewell para mujer Verde Zapatillas de running NIKE RN 2017 para mujer gratis Wolf Gray / Cool Grey / Pure Platinum / Volt , Sandalias EVA Gizeh de mujer Birkenstock Gris , Wolky Womens Nomad Pizarra Cartago Cuero Zapatillas Skechers Women You-14966 Gris / azul Skechers Go Walk Evolution Ultra Rapids Sneaker para mujer Blanco negro Zapatillas Slip-On Skate Print de Vans para hombre Negro Negro Vans Auténtico Crema / nuez Bomba de cuña Lansing para mujer Trotters Azul marino de gamuza de cuero infantil Zapato de skate Wnt High rebote DC para mujer Marrón / Chocolate , FootJoy Colección Casual para Mujer Zapatos de Lino de Golf Medianoche / tela de mezclilla , Birkenstock Arizona Sandalia de ante con suela suave Cuero Habana Aceitado Orthofeet Cómodo Fascitis plantar Capri Womens Orthopaedic Pies planos diabéticos Cuero para mujer Mocasines , Abilene Women s Sage by Cowgirl Boot - 3551 Afligido , Bota Khola de mujer de Penny Loves Kenny Gris / Multi Zapatillas de deporte lavables Walker Propet para mujer Sr Black Muck Boot Tremont Wellie Tall Snow para mujeres Negro , Belleville Hot Weather Desierto Botas y vehículos de combate (cisterna) Botas, Hombres, Zapatos Broncearse , PIC / PAY Benji - Cordones de las mujeres Cremallera vintage Arranque - Media altura Cuero de gamuza envuelto Bloquear el talón del tobillo Bootie Ante negro Denunciar Hanelli Tobillera para mujeres Negro Finn Comfort Women s Hanoi Oxford Patente negra Calzado deportivo de mujer FitFlop Uberknit Walking Slip-On Carbón / gris polvoriento

If you have never studied inversion geometry, you can start here. The elementary concepts are explained. This page is a quick reference for the other lessons that employ inversion geometry.

Linkages

Draw a line segment. Did you use a straightedge? How do you know it was straight?

Java simulations are used to investigate a nineteenth century mechanics problem.

On the Square

The challenge: Given four arbitrary, unique points, *A*, *B*,
*C*, and *D*, construct one line through each point such that the four lines form a square.

Orthocenter What is so significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers’ workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format. This lesson was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but with a little editing it should work just as well with Cabri or Cinderella.

The Planimeter

A planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure area. Its mechanism is quite simple, but understanding why it works is more elusive.

Platonic Solids

Find the inradius, circumradius, dihedral angle, surface area, and volume of all of the Platonic solids. There is also some information about some of their other interesting properties.

Reuleaux Triangle

It is not a circle, but it has constant width. Study the properties of this figure with interactive animated sketches.

Rungs and Vineyards

How is that for a descriptive title? Here are investigations of two interesting visual effects seen from a moving automobile. It includes two interactive perspective drawings, and a discussion of the cylindrical and planar projections used to create them.

The Sliding Triangle

An interesting accidental discovery – Investigate ellipses by tracing triangle transformations.

Table Patterns

Explore geometric patterns formed in a table of modular multiplication. This one requires some elementary knowledge of congruence classes and modular arithmetic.

Tangent Circles

Three circles are given. How many circles can be constructed tangent to all three? How are they constructed? This lesson includes ten animations covering all of the special cases. Some of them are very complex. A little knowledge of circle inversions would help.

Volume of a Torus Do you already know the volume of a torus? Then humor me. I just figured Zapatillas/ NIKE Women blanco s Revolution 3 para correr Gris correr oscuro/ blanco/ negro 023f680 it out, and I got a chance to try out this new graphics software.

Resources

The Geometer’s Sketchpad Workshop

It is plain to see that I am very fond of Sketchpad. This page was created after the release of version 4. The idea is to have a place to exchange ideas with other users, especially those who are using the advanced features. Here are some custom tools and some information on Java Sketchpad.

Sketchpad Gallery These are some of my best sketches. You may find them useful or interesting by themselves.

Geometry Construction Reference

Thirteen elementary straightedge
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and compass constructions are described and illustrated. The original version,
in Word format, can be downloaded and distributed.

Last update: March 16, 2016 ... Paul Kunkel

For email to reach me, the word