Whistler Alley Mathematics

These are some mathematics investigations I have pursued over the years. They may be of some interest to teachers, students, or hobbyists. I try to convey a conceptual understanding, usually without rigorous proof. Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

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Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

In my pursuit of a teaching career, I was told to justify the study of each concept by establishing its relevance to the students’ lives. Sorry, but I still have trouble buying into that one. Fortunately, poetry and music are rarely put to that same test. As I glance at the list below, I must concede that it would be difficult to convert any of the lessons into food, shelter, or money. These are things that interested me, and now I understand them better. If there is a reward, it is the fact that every time I do this I get better at figuring things out.

I occasionally get email from people seeking permission to use my work. Feel free to cite, quote, edit, reproduce, or distribute anything on this site. Do not worry about putting my name on it, but please do not put your own name on it.

Many of these presentations use the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but only one of them actually requires it. If you do not have the software, let me suggest that you follow this link to Key Curriculum Press and look into it.

Paul Kunkel


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Recent Changes

March 16, 2016

Updated the animations on Hanging With Galileo.

October 23, 2015

Updated the animations on Reuleaux Triangle.

October 9, 2015

Updated the animations on the Vernier Scale page of the Geometry of Surveying.

October 8, 2015

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Updated the animations on Linkages.

October 4, 2015

Updated the animations on On the Square.

September 25, 2015

Updated the animations on Tangent Circles.

September 23, 2015

Updated the lead page of Conic Sections and Construction.
The page it replaced had java animations that were not being treated well by modern browsers. New images were generated with the developmental Web Sketchpad, which is producing very satisfying results. This appears to be the future, so expect more of my pages to be similarly updated soon.

February 26, 2015

Added Book VII to the Conics of Apollonius.
This is the final surviving book of the treatise.

October 22, 2014

Added Book VI to the Conics of Apollonius.

June 10, 2014

Added Book V to the Conics of Apollonius.


 Includes GSP-3 files

 Includes GSP-4 files

 Includes GSP-5 files Contents:

The Brachistochrone

We are given two fixed points in a vertical plane. A particle starts from rest at one of the points and travels to the other under its own weight. Find the path that the particle must follow in order to reach its destination in the briefest time.

This is a famous problem in the calculus of variations. Nothing new is presented here, but the explanation is more thorough than most.


Buffon’s Needle

An old probability exercise is aided by an interactive Sketchpad file. By manipulating the sketch, an intuitive understanding may be gained, even if the student has had no introduction to calculus.


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Chinese Handcuffs This has no lesson, only questions. It is just an interesting animated file, which invites student investigation. It has applications for geometry,

Calzado deportivo New Balance para mujer Vazee Rush V3 Blanco / Vintage Indigo Zapatillas de running New Balance Boracay V3 para mujer Dark Denim / Sunrise Glow Zapatillas de running TOPO FLI-Lyte 2 para mujer Coral / Aqua NIKE Men s Roshe Two Running Shoe Negro Negro , ASICS Womens Gel-Fortitude 8 Gris medio / blanco / azul de porcelana Skechers Sport Skech Air Run High Fashion Sneaker Negro Hot Pink , Zapatillas para caminar Reebok Women s Cloudride LS DMX Manic Cherry / Fire Spark / White , Zapato de running ASICS GT-1000 6 para mujer Insignia Azul / Plateado / Rojo Rouge , Under Armour Men s Speedform Intake Negro / Púrpura Rave / Penta Rosa Saucony Triumph ISO 3 Running Sneaker para mujer Blanco / verde azulado / Citron , Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Obra azul / obsidiana oscura Zapatillas de running NIKE para mujer Lunarstelos Negro / plata metálica / azul luna / aluminio , Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Hyper Turq / Black-volt-rio Teal Zapatillas de running Saucony Women s Breakthru 3 Berry Coral , NIKE Mujeres Downshifter 7 Negro Mtlc Hematita Antracita , Zapatillas de running Flex Ride 630v5 para mujer New Balance Seafoam / Thunder , Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Blue Tint / Black-cirrus Blue-aurora Green Zapatillas de running adidas Alphabounce Beyond W, para mujer Gris dos grises tres grises uno Zapato deportivo para acolchado 680v5 New Balance para mujer Silver Mink , Zapatillas de correr 3D Salomon X Scream para mujer Papaya / Lotus Pink / Flashy , Zapatillas de running Fresh Foam 1080v7 para mujer New Balance Supercell / Sunrise Zapatillas de running Reebok Print 2.0 para mujer Azul polar / Gable gris / Niebla / Verde menta / Blanco / Plata , Zapatillas de correr de espuma fresca New Balance 1080v8 para mujer Baya del Saúco / Coral Vivo Zapatillas de running Gobiv2 para mujer New Balance Berenjena / Vintage Indigo , Zapato deportivo ASICS Gel-Kayano 24 para mujer Glaciar Gris / Blanco / Carbono , Calzado de running NIKE RN 2017 2017 para mujer Cerúleo / Blanco / Azul Espacial / Espuma de Menta Mochila para mujer Deva 60 Litre, de Gregory Mountain Products, Verde Antigua, Extra Pequeño Nocturne Blue Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Hyper Turq / Black-volt-rio Teal , Zapatillas para correr de carretera Altra One V3 para mujer Púrpura / Naranja ,
trigonometry, and probability. Fair warning: The discussion revolves about a figure that appears only when the sketch is animated. Without Geometer’s Sketchpad, this one will make little sense at all.


Conic Sections and Construction

My emphasis is on geometric properties of the conic sections, particulary understanding that has been handed down to us in ancient texts. There also are some challenging constructions.


The Geometry of Surveying

This used to be my job, and I enjoyed studying all of the geometrical concepts that were part of the science of land surveying. In this article I discuss the instruments of the profession, their operating principles, their error, and their calibration.


Hanging with Galileo

An investigation into the catenary, the curve formed by a chain suspended at both ends. It also extends into the curve of the main cables on a suspension bridge, which, interestingly, is not a catenary.


Inversion Geometry Zapatillas de running NIKE Unisex Flyknit Racer NEGRO / NEGRO-ANTRACITA , Zapatillas de running Under Armour Speedform Intake 2 para mujer Negro (001) / Acero , Zapatillas de running W1260V5 para mujer New Balance Azul plateado , 361 Zapatillas de running para mujer 361-Enjector Sparkle / Phlox_1339 Zapatillas de deporte Romy de Easy Spirit para mujer Blanco azul claro Sandalia Tonya de mujer Trotters Arena , Vionic Rest Farra - Sandalias de apoyo para mujeres Negro Negro , Zapatillas Sneachers Sport Women s Microburst Supersonic Fashion Sneaker Blanco negro , Zapatillas de viaje Propet para mujer Ante negro Kate Spade New York Women s Celo Sandal Pale Pink Nappa Flip-Flops de The North Face para hombre Base Camp Lite Falcon Brown / Rainy Day Ivory , Zapatillas para caminar ProFit TravelFit Slide para mujer Negro rojo Zapatillas para caminar ProCon Zipiv TravelActiv para mujer Plata / Lima Calzado de entrenamiento NIKE Metcon Repper DSX para mujer NIKE Negro / Racer rosa / azul cloro Adidas Sport Performance Mujeres Terrex CC Voyager Sleek Sneakers Verde ceniza / Aero Verde / Amarillo semi-congelado Zapatillas para mujer Del Rey TOMS Patente negra , Vans Sk8-Hi Unisex Top informal Zapatos de skate, cómodos y duradero en Waffle de la firma Suela de goma Blau , Sandalia Mason para mujer Naturalizer Slide Cuero metalizado lila Sandalias Jerusalem Sandalia Joanna para mujer Miel Sandalia Rokkit Crystal Slide de FitFlop para mujer Azul (Supernavy) Sandalia para mujer bien descansada Seychelles Gris , Sandalias Peep Toe de Misu para mujer Latin Salsa Blackgo Practicar zapatos de baile para salón con tacón de 2.75 \ Negro , Zapatillas de beisbol de softbol de lanzamiento rapido FUSEV1 metal New Balance para mujeres Blanco ~ 50 tonos de bronce Zapatos de vestir de baile Colección, Comodidad Boda de la tarde Bombas: Salón de baile para mujeres Zapatos para América, Tango, salsa, swing, Theather Art por Fiesta Party (2.5 \ & 3 \ 3001 Dark Tan Satin & Copper , Aerosoles tobillera mujer Sonic Botin Cuero negro , Sandalia Birkenstock de cuero Florida para mujer Negro Birko-flor , Zapatillas de deporte lavables Walker Propet para mujer Blanco , Denunciar Hanelli Tobillera para mujeres Broncearse Zapatillas de deporte Trolide Derby Trainer Fashion Rockport para mujer Piedra Steve Madden Mujeres Hugh Flat Azul Multi

If you have never studied inversion geometry, you can start here. The elementary concepts are explained. This page is a quick reference for the other lessons that employ inversion geometry.


Linkages

Draw a line segment. Did you use a straightedge? How do you know it was straight?

Java simulations are used to investigate a nineteenth century mechanics problem.


On the Square

The challenge: Given four arbitrary, unique points, A, B, C, and D, construct one line through each point such that the four lines form a square.


Orthocenter What is so significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers’ workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format. This lesson was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but with a little editing it should work just as well with Cabri or Cinderella.
The Planimeter

A planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure area. Its mechanism is quite simple, but understanding why it works is more elusive.


Platonic Solids

Find the inradius, circumradius, dihedral angle, surface area, and volume of all of the Platonic solids. There is also some information about some of their other interesting properties.


Reuleaux Triangle

It is not a circle, but it has constant width. Study the properties of this figure with interactive animated sketches.


Rungs and Vineyards

How is that for a descriptive title? Here are investigations of two interesting visual effects seen from a moving automobile. It includes two interactive perspective drawings, and a discussion of the cylindrical and planar projections used to create them.


The Sliding Triangle

An interesting accidental discovery – Investigate ellipses by tracing triangle transformations.


Table Patterns

Explore geometric patterns formed in a table of modular multiplication. This one requires some elementary knowledge of congruence classes and modular arithmetic.

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Tangent Circles

Three circles are given. How many circles can be constructed tangent to all three? How are they constructed? This lesson includes ten animations covering all of the special cases. Some of them are very complex. A little knowledge of circle inversions would help.


Volume of a Torus Do you already know the volume of a torus? Then humor me. I just figured Zapatillas de/ running Saucony 14643 PowerGrid para/ mujeres Gris/ Té/ Rosa 076bfc2 it out, and I got a chance to try out this new graphics software.


Resources


The Geometer’s Sketchpad Workshop

It is plain to see that I am very fond of Sketchpad. This page was created after the release of version 4. The idea is to have a place to exchange ideas with other users, especially those who are using the advanced features. Here are some custom tools and some information on Java Sketchpad.

Carretera en funcionamiento
Sketchpad Gallery These are some of my best sketches. You may find them useful or interesting by themselves.

Geometry Construction Reference

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and compass constructions are described and illustrated. The original version, in Word format, can be downloaded and distributed.

Back to Whistler Alley


Last update: March 16, 2016 ... Paul Kunkel whistling@whistleralley.com
For email to reach me, the word geometry must appear in the body of the message.