These are some mathematics investigations I have pursued over the years. They may be of some interest to teachers, students, or hobbyists. I try to convey a conceptual understanding, usually without rigorous proof. Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

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Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

In my pursuit of a teaching career, I was told to justify the study of each concept by establishing its relevance to the students’ lives. Sorry, but I still have trouble buying into that one. Fortunately, poetry and music are rarely put to that same test. As I glance at the list below, I must concede that it would be difficult to convert any of the lessons into food, shelter, or money. These are things that interested me, and now I understand them better. If there is a reward, it is the fact that every time I do this I get better at figuring things out.

I occasionally get email from people seeking permission to use my work. Feel free to cite, quote, edit, reproduce, or distribute anything on this site. Do not worry about putting my name on it, but please do not put your own name on it.

Many of these presentations use the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but only one of them actually requires it. If you do not have the software, let me suggest that you follow this link to Key Curriculum Press and look into it.

Paul Kunkel

March 16, 2016

Updated the animations on Hanging With Galileo.

October 23, 2015

Updated the animations on Reuleaux Triangle.

October 9, 2015

Updated the animations on the Vernier Scale page of the Geometry of Surveying.

October 8, 2015

Zapatillas Zapatillas de para running mujer NIKE para mujer Lunarepic Low Flyknit 2 Black/ White-hyper Punch 26efc80Updated the animations on Linkages.

October 4, 2015

Updated the animations on On the Square.

September 25, 2015

Updated the animations on Tangent Circles.

September 23, 2015

Updated the lead page of Conic Sections and Construction.

The page it replaced had java animations that were not being treated well by modern browsers. New images were generated with the developmental Web Sketchpad, which is producing very satisfying results. This appears to be the future, so expect more of my pages to be similarly updated soon.

February 26, 2015

Added Book VII to the Conics of Apollonius.

This is the final surviving book of the treatise.

October 22, 2014

Added Book VI to the Conics of Apollonius.

June 10, 2014

Added Book V to the Conics of Apollonius.

Includes GSP-3 files

Includes GSP-4 files

Includes GSP-5 files
Contents:

We are given two fixed points in a vertical plane. A particle starts from rest at one of the points and travels to the other under its own weight. Find the path that the particle must follow in order to reach its destination in the briefest time.

This is a famous problem in the calculus of variations. Nothing new is presented here, but the explanation is more thorough than most.

Buffon’s Needle

An old probability exercise is aided by an interactive Sketchpad file. By manipulating the sketch, an intuitive understanding may be gained, even if the student has had no introduction to calculus.

Zapatillas Zapatillas de para running mujer NIKE para mujer Lunarepic Low Flyknit 2 Black/ White-hyper Punch 26efc80

Chinese Handcuffs This has no lesson, only questions. It is just an interesting animated file, which invites student investigation. It has applications for geometry,

Zapatillas de running NIKE Men s Free 5.0 Tr Fit 5 Fabric Azul / Verde Fantasma Zapatillas para correr Mizuno Women s Wave Rider 21 High Rise / Gray Stone , Zapatillas de running Questr Cc W de mujer adidas Aero Pink S, Aero Pink S, Carbono S NIKE Women s Wmns Air Max 270, Coral Stardust / Black-Summit White Rosado Camiseta adidas Swift Run W para mujer Trace rosa / gris tres / cristal blanco Zapatillas de running Brooks Womens Ghost 10 Neutral acolchadas Pavo real negro / rosa / Living Coral Zapatillas ligeras para correr NIKE Womens Air Max Thea Print Trainer Negro En la ejecución de calzado de mujer en la nube Denim / Blanco , Calzado de running NIKE RN 2017 2017 para mujer Negro / blanco / antracita / gris lobo , Zapatillas de running Nike Kids Air Max Zero Essential GS Negro / gris antracita-cool , Zapatillas de running NIKE Lunar Skyelux para mujer Celadon-azul , Zapatillas de running ASICS Gel-Contend 4 para mujer Negro / Negro / Carbono , Zapatillas para correr Mizuno Women s Wave Creation 15 Azul , Zapatillas de running New Balance 990v4 para mujer Plata menta / plata menta Zapatillas de running adidas Alphabounce Beyond W, para mujer Núcleo negro, núcleo negro, tela gris cinco , Desafío femenino de Brooks 9 Antracita / cerámica / flor de la pasión , Zapatillas de running Altra Women s Intuition 4 Púrpura / negro , Zapatillas de running Hurricane ISO 2 Refl de Saucony para mujer Gris blanco , Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Blanco / Negro-volt-cloro Azul , Saucony Women s Ride 10 zapatillas para correr Blanco azul , Zapatillas de running NIKE Lunarglide 9 para mujer Negro / blanco / gris oscuro / gris lobo , NIKE Women s Wmns Air Max 270, Ocean Bliss / Blanco-Negro-Hot Punch Ocean Bliss / White-black-hot Punch Zapatillas de running ZIGOR para mujer Zapatillas de mujer Flyknit Epic React Blanco ASICS Kanmei Shoe Casual para mujer Negro / Negro / Blanco Zapatillas de running ISO para mujeres de la guía Saucony Pizarra / Melocotón , Zapatillas de running ASICS Gel-Nimbus 20 para mujer Gris Medio / Gris Medio / Rosa Concha Zapatillas para correr Mizuno Women s Wave Creation 15 Rosa / negro / rosa Calzado deportivo de running New Balance Foam Cruz V1 de New Balance para mujer Silver Mink / Outerspace Zapatillas de running Saucony para mujer Omni 16 Gris azul ,

trigonometry, and probability. Fair warning: The discussion revolves about
a figure that appears only when the sketch is animated. Without Geometer’s
Sketchpad, this one will make little sense at all.
Conic Sections and Construction

My emphasis is on geometric properties of the conic sections, particulary understanding that has been handed down to us in ancient texts. There also are some challenging constructions.

The Geometry of Surveying

This used to be my job, and I enjoyed studying all of the geometrical concepts that were part of the science of land surveying. In this article I discuss the instruments of the profession, their operating principles, their error, and their calibration.

Hanging with Galileo

An investigation into the catenary, the curve formed by a chain suspended at both ends. It also extends into the curve of the main cables on a suspension bridge, which, interestingly, is not a catenary.

Inversion Geometry Zapatillas de running adidas para mujer Cloudfoam Qt Racer W Malla negra / blanca / negra , Zapatillas de senderismo multifuncionales X Ultra Prime X Salomon para mujer y paquete de botellas de agua colapsadas Artista Gray-X / Deep Blue / Lucite Green Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Seasonal Color Hola Monocromo negro , Zapatillas de running adidas Ultraboost W para mujer Unity Ink / Unity Ink / Dark Navy Zapatillas NIKE Tanjun Prem Sneaker para mujer Pure Platinum / Pure Platinum , Zapatillas de running V-Trek Military / Purple Trail Vibram para mujer Militar / Púrpura Zapatillas de running Reebok Zigkick Wild Trail para mujer Vuelo azul / azul marino / azul de impacto / rosa solar Zapato acuático Merrell Capra Rapid Sieve para mujer Negro , Zapatos de agua para mujer Dreamcity Zapatos deportivos atléticos para caminar Lightgrey 1786 Corkys Quickstep Women Open-Toe Canvas Black Sport Sandalia Gris-plata , Vionic Rest Farra - Sandalias de apoyo para mujeres Negro Negro , Sandalia Terrell II de Merrell para mujer Dusty Olive , Sandalia Tonya de mujer Trotters Arena , Zapatillas ALC-Diva Cross-Trainer para mujer Avia Gris hierro / Niebla fría gris / Plumeria Entrenador cruzado Grafik Flow Ryka para mujeres Frost Grey / Bright Chartreuse / Soft Blue Zapatillas de deporte One Star Ox de Converse para hombre Ocean Bliss / Navy / Egret , Sandalia de mujer Kelley de Eastland Natural , Sandalias de cuero metalizado Tory Burch Miller Espadrille, Dorado , Zapatilla Ascot de hombre UGG castaña , Plataforma de campo Leisa para mujeres de CLARKS Cuero Multi Metálico , Zapatillas de volante Mizuno Wave Lightning Z4 para mujer Negro / Plata CAPEZIO Mujer cambre (1128W) -Petal Pink Pétalo rosa Motociclistas mujeres de SKECHERS - Decisión dividida Cuero negro / malla , Sandalia de vestir Carrson de mujer Steve Madden Bright Multi , Zapatilla de pies Cush N de Prop & eacute; t para mujeres Negro , Stuart Weitzman Womens Climbing Patente negra , FRYE Womens Veronica Rebel Combat Granos encerados negros Tangas Birkenstock Patente blanca Bota de moda oliva Dr. Martens Combs II Aceituna Blundstone Super 550 Series Boot Negro

If you have never studied inversion geometry, you can start here. The elementary concepts are explained. This page is a quick reference for the other lessons that employ inversion geometry.

Linkages

Draw a line segment. Did you use a straightedge? How do you know it was straight?

Java simulations are used to investigate a nineteenth century mechanics problem.

On the Square

The challenge: Given four arbitrary, unique points, *A*, *B*,
*C*, and *D*, construct one line through each point such that the four lines form a square.

Orthocenter What is so significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers’ workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format. This lesson was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but with a little editing it should work just as well with Cabri or Cinderella.

The Planimeter

A planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure area. Its mechanism is quite simple, but understanding why it works is more elusive.

Platonic Solids

Find the inradius, circumradius, dihedral angle, surface area, and volume of all of the Platonic solids. There is also some information about some of their other interesting properties.

Reuleaux Triangle

It is not a circle, but it has constant width. Study the properties of this figure with interactive animated sketches.

Rungs and Vineyards

How is that for a descriptive title? Here are investigations of two interesting visual effects seen from a moving automobile. It includes two interactive perspective drawings, and a discussion of the cylindrical and planar projections used to create them.

The Sliding Triangle

An interesting accidental discovery – Investigate ellipses by tracing triangle transformations.

Table Patterns

Explore geometric patterns formed in a table of modular multiplication. This one requires some elementary knowledge of congruence classes and modular arithmetic.

Tangent Circles

Three circles are given. How many circles can be constructed tangent to all three? How are they constructed? This lesson includes ten animations covering all of the special cases. Some of them are very complex. A little knowledge of circle inversions would help.

Volume of a Torus Do you already know the volume of a torus? Then humor me. I just figured Zapatillas Zapatillas de para running mujer NIKE para mujer Lunarepic Low Flyknit 2 Black/ White-hyper Punch 26efc80 it out, and I got a chance to try out this new graphics software.

Resources

The Geometer’s Sketchpad Workshop

It is plain to see that I am very fond of Sketchpad. This page was created after the release of version 4. The idea is to have a place to exchange ideas with other users, especially those who are using the advanced features. Here are some custom tools and some information on Java Sketchpad.

Sketchpad Gallery These are some of my best sketches. You may find them useful or interesting by themselves.

Geometry Construction Reference

Thirteen elementary straightedge
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and compass constructions are described and illustrated. The original version,
in Word format, can be downloaded and distributed.

Last update: March 16, 2016 ... Paul Kunkel

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