These are some mathematics investigations I have pursued over the years. They may be of some interest to teachers, students, or hobbyists. I try to convey a conceptual understanding, usually without rigorous proof. Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

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Some of the lessons are accompanied by questions and suggestions for extensions.

In my pursuit of a teaching career, I was told to justify the study of each concept by establishing its relevance to the students’ lives. Sorry, but I still have trouble buying into that one. Fortunately, poetry and music are rarely put to that same test. As I glance at the list below, I must concede that it would be difficult to convert any of the lessons into food, shelter, or money. These are things that interested me, and now I understand them better. If there is a reward, it is the fact that every time I do this I get better at figuring things out.

I occasionally get email from people seeking permission to use my work. Feel free to cite, quote, edit, reproduce, or distribute anything on this site. Do not worry about putting my name on it, but please do not put your own name on it.

Many of these presentations use the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but only one of them actually requires it. If you do not have the software, let me suggest that you follow this link to Key Curriculum Press and look into it.

Paul Kunkel

March 16, 2016

Updated the animations on Hanging With Galileo.

October 23, 2015

Updated the animations on Reuleaux Triangle.

October 9, 2015

Updated the animations on the Vernier Scale page of the Geometry of Surveying.

October 8, 2015

kensie Sandalia negro Dominic para B004OA06EC Slide para mujer Floral negro 96fd639Updated the animations on Linkages.

October 4, 2015

Updated the animations on On the Square.

September 25, 2015

Updated the animations on Tangent Circles.

September 23, 2015

Updated the lead page of Conic Sections and Construction.

The page it replaced had java animations that were not being treated well by modern browsers. New images were generated with the developmental Web Sketchpad, which is producing very satisfying results. This appears to be the future, so expect more of my pages to be similarly updated soon.

February 26, 2015

Added Book VII to the Conics of Apollonius.

This is the final surviving book of the treatise.

October 22, 2014

Added Book VI to the Conics of Apollonius.

June 10, 2014

Added Book V to the Conics of Apollonius.

Includes GSP-3 files

Includes GSP-4 files

Includes GSP-5 files
Contents:

We are given two fixed points in a vertical plane. A particle starts from rest at one of the points and travels to the other under its own weight. Find the path that the particle must follow in order to reach its destination in the briefest time.

This is a famous problem in the calculus of variations. Nothing new is presented here, but the explanation is more thorough than most.

Buffon’s Needle

An old probability exercise is aided by an interactive Sketchpad file. By manipulating the sketch, an intuitive understanding may be gained, even if the student has had no introduction to calculus.

kensie Sandalia negro Dominic para B004OA06EC Slide para mujer Floral negro 96fd639

Chinese Handcuffs This has no lesson, only questions. It is just an interesting animated file, which invites student investigation. It has applications for geometry,

Sandalias con tachuelas Gale para mujer Donald J Pliner Adular , Sandalia Rokkit Crystal Slide de FitFlop para mujer Azul (Supernavy) , Sandalia de diapositivas para mujer Daydream Shoes de Dr. Scholl s Shoes Light Wash Blue Mesh , Birkenstock Arizona Sandalia de ante con suela suave Negro , Sandalia Aerosoles Midday Women Slide Combo floral , Vince Camuto Women s Haydan Slide Sandal Karat Gold , Sandalia Buxom Slide de Charles David para mujer Plata , Sandalia Tt-Lass Tahari para mujer Gamuza negra brillante , Vince Camuto Sandalias Ellanna Slide para mujer Brillante plata Sandalia Cato Dolce Vita para mujer Cuero grabado en relieve de serpiente Sandalia de diapositivas Clara embellecida Marc Jacobs para mujer Negro , Sandalia de mujer de Worishofer 251 Ópalo Sandalia de la diapositiva Adalea de las mujeres de Dolce Vita Ante azul marino , Sandalia de cuero cosida SAS para mujer Ámbar Sandalia de cuña OAHU de China Laundry Women Vintage Rose Suede , Sandalia Heather Slide de mujer Vía Spiga Cuero negro Sandalia Florence Slide de Vionic Women s Rest Negro , Sandalias planas de mujer de Easy Street marrón , Sandalia Rilee Slide Dolce Vita para mujer Cuero plateado Vince Camuto Sandalias Ellanna Slide para mujer Negro Sandalia de la diapositiva del satén de Lafay de las mujeres del oeste nueve Satén Multi Natural , Sandalia de la diapositiva de Benicia de las mujeres de Dolce Vita Tela natural / negra , Dakota femenina de UGG Café exprés , Sam Edelman Sandalia Bernice Slide para mujer Saddle Vaquero Saddle Leather , Sandalia de la diapositiva de Florene de las mujeres de Lucky Brand Misty Rose La Plume Jen de las mujeres Deco blanco , Sandalia Sonia Slide de Dolce Vita para mujer Coral Stripe Elastic SCHUTZ Sandalia Yaslin Slide para mujer Escarlata Sam Edelman Women s Bay Slide Sandal Tangelo Vaquero Saddle Leather ,

trigonometry, and probability. Fair warning: The discussion revolves about
a figure that appears only when the sketch is animated. Without Geometer’s
Sketchpad, this one will make little sense at all.
Conic Sections and Construction

My emphasis is on geometric properties of the conic sections, particulary understanding that has been handed down to us in ancient texts. There also are some challenging constructions.

The Geometry of Surveying

This used to be my job, and I enjoyed studying all of the geometrical concepts that were part of the science of land surveying. In this article I discuss the instruments of the profession, their operating principles, their error, and their calibration.

Hanging with Galileo

An investigation into the catenary, the curve formed by a chain suspended at both ends. It also extends into the curve of the main cables on a suspension bridge, which, interestingly, is not a catenary.

Inversion Geometry Zapatillas de deporte NIKE Womens Air Max 95 Running 307960 Sneakers Shoes Coastal Blue 400 , Lanzamiento de Brooks Womens 5 Negro / verde azulado / blanco , Calzado de running Reebok Print Run Prime Ultk para mujer Carbón / Negro / Violeta picante / Ponche de guayaba / Blanco Sandalia Terrell Ari Convert Sport de Merrell para mujer Paloma , Zapatillas para correr Nike Women s Free Rn Flyknit 2017 Mango brillante negro / blanco , Zapatillas de running NIKE Air Huarache para hombre Washed Teal / Pure Platinum , Sandalia Drew Element para mujer Naranja quemada Zapatillas de running PUMA para mujer Ignite Negro / Plata / Turbulencia / Patina Verde , Zapatillas de running Trail para acolchado WT410v5 de New Balance para mujer Negro , NIKE Women s Wmns Metcon 3 HK, Pure Platnium / Tea Berry Pure Platinum / Tea Berry-mortal Rosa , Zapatillas de running de montaña Columbia Montrail para mujer maoísta Iv Outdry Trail Steam, Jade Lime Zapatillas para caminar New Balance 85v1 para mujer Tan / joya , OluKai Ohana Lace-Up Nubuck Shoe-Men s Henna / Toffee , Easy Spirit Solana Oxford para mujeres Nuez , Calzado de espuma fresca New Balance para mujer 1165v1 Gris Drew Shoe Athena para mujeres Crema / Combo Sandalia Terra FI Lite de Teva para mujer Magenta Sandalia Tonya de mujer Trotters rojo Wolky Women s Liana Sandal Cafe Smooth Leather , Zapatillas de entrenamiento Reebok Crossfit Lite Lo TR para mujer Negro / Electro Rosa / Acero Vans Unisex Old Skool Zapatillas clásicas de skate Blanco negro Sandalias SAS para mujer, Nudu Slide Oro Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Seasonal Canvas High Top Sneaker Carbón , Vans Auténtico Cornstalk Black , Sandalia As-Scream Slide de mujer Ash Plata Así que Danca CH50 Character Shoe con 1.5 Heel Blanco , Gabor Womens Gabor 72.722 Negro , Mujer Alegria Belle Mary Jane Flat Tótem , Bota de mujer Nina Freida Slouch Negro , Zapato casual mujer TOMS Cabrillo Mezcla de terciopelo con textura azul infinito ,

If you have never studied inversion geometry, you can start here. The elementary concepts are explained. This page is a quick reference for the other lessons that employ inversion geometry.

Linkages

Draw a line segment. Did you use a straightedge? How do you know it was straight?

Java simulations are used to investigate a nineteenth century mechanics problem.

On the Square

The challenge: Given four arbitrary, unique points, *A*, *B*,
*C*, and *D*, construct one line through each point such that the four lines form a square.

Orthocenter What is so significant about the orthocenter of a triangle? Why does it even have a name? This investigation was prepared for a geometry teachers’ workshop. It includes a lesson handout in Word format. This lesson was written for use in a computer lab with the Geometer’s Sketchpad, but with a little editing it should work just as well with Cabri or Cinderella.

The Planimeter

A planimeter is a drafting instrument used to measure area. Its mechanism is quite simple, but understanding why it works is more elusive.

Platonic Solids

Find the inradius, circumradius, dihedral angle, surface area, and volume of all of the Platonic solids. There is also some information about some of their other interesting properties.

Reuleaux Triangle

It is not a circle, but it has constant width. Study the properties of this figure with interactive animated sketches.

Rungs and Vineyards

How is that for a descriptive title? Here are investigations of two interesting visual effects seen from a moving automobile. It includes two interactive perspective drawings, and a discussion of the cylindrical and planar projections used to create them.

The Sliding Triangle

An interesting accidental discovery – Investigate ellipses by tracing triangle transformations.

Table Patterns

Explore geometric patterns formed in a table of modular multiplication. This one requires some elementary knowledge of congruence classes and modular arithmetic.

Tangent Circles

Three circles are given. How many circles can be constructed tangent to all three? How are they constructed? This lesson includes ten animations covering all of the special cases. Some of them are very complex. A little knowledge of circle inversions would help.

Volume of a Torus Do you already know the volume of a torus? Then humor me. I just figured kensie Sandalia negro Dominic para B004OA06EC Slide para mujer Floral negro 96fd639 it out, and I got a chance to try out this new graphics software.

Resources

The Geometer’s Sketchpad Workshop

It is plain to see that I am very fond of Sketchpad. This page was created after the release of version 4. The idea is to have a place to exchange ideas with other users, especially those who are using the advanced features. Here are some custom tools and some information on Java Sketchpad.

Sketchpad Gallery These are some of my best sketches. You may find them useful or interesting by themselves.

Geometry Construction Reference

Thirteen elementary straightedge
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and compass constructions are described and illustrated. The original version,
in Word format, can be downloaded and distributed.

Last update: March 16, 2016 ... Paul Kunkel

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